2-D: Abbreviation for two-dimensional. This term is an adjective describing something in the flat world, meaning that it has features that can only be explained in his two dimensions: width and length.
application: a specific use or function of something.
atmosphere: An envelope of gas surrounding the Earth, another planet, or the Moon.
atom: Basic unit of chemical elements. Atoms consist of a dense nucleus containing positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons. The nucleus of an atom is orbited by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.
boron: Chemical element with atomic number 5. The scientific symbol is B.
carbon: A chemical element that is the physical basis of all life on Earth. Carbon exists freely as graphite and diamond. It is an important part of coal, limestone, and petroleum, and can chemically self-combine to form a vast number of chemically, biologically, and commercially important molecules.
carbon dioxide:(or CO2) A colorless, odorless gas produced by all animals when the oxygen they breathe reacts with the carbon-rich food they eat. Carbon dioxide is also released when organic materials (including fossil fuels such as oil and gas) are burned. Carbon dioxide acts as a greenhouse gas, trapping heat in the Earth's atmosphere. Plants convert carbon dioxide into oxygen during photosynthesis. This process is used to make their own food.
cement: Bonds two materials together using a binder that hardens into a hard solid, or a viscous adhesive used to stick two materials together. (during construction) A finely ground material used to bind sand or crushed stone fragments into concrete. Cement usually begins as a powder. However, once it gets wet, it turns into a muddy sludge that hardens when it dries.
chemicals: A substance formed when two or more atoms combine (combine) in a certain ratio and structure. For example, water is a chemical produced when two hydrogen atoms combine with one oxygen atom.Its chemical formula is H2O. Chemistry can also be used as an adjective to describe the properties of materials that result from various reactions between different compounds.
computer chip: (also integrated circuit) A computer component that processes and stores information.
conductor: (in physics and engineering) A substance through which an electric current can flow.
the current: (in electricity) the flow of electricity or amount of charge that moves through some substance over a specified period of time.
electricity: A flow of charge that results from the movement of negatively charged particles, usually called electrons.
electronics: A device that is powered by electricity but whose properties are controlled by a semiconductor or other circuit that controls or gates the movement of charge.
germ: Single-celled microorganisms such as bacteria, fungal species, and virus particles. Some bacteria cause disease. Some promote health in more complex organisms, such as birds and mammals. However, the health effects of most bacteria are still unknown.
MXenes: A type of ultra-thin layered synthetic nanomaterial with a planar structure (like a sheet of paper). They are made from alternating layers of atoms. One layer consists of bonded atoms of a certain transition metal (called M). The next layer is a combination of atoms of another element (usually carbon, nitrogen, or bromine) called X. These materials are very thin, so they have a very large surface area relative to their mass. Many are also chemically reactive.
nitrogen: A colorless, odorless, non-reactive gaseous element that forms approximately 78 percent of Earth's atmosphere. Its scientific symbol is N. When fossil fuels are burned, nitrogen is released in the form of nitrogen oxides. Comes in two stable formats. Both have 14 protons in the nucleus. But its nucleus has 14 neutrons. the other is 15. Because of their differences, they are known as nitrogen-14 and nitrogen-15 (or nitrogen-15), respectively. 14N and 15N).
Rin: A highly reactive non-metallic element naturally occurring in phosphates. Its scientific symbol is P. It is an important part of many chemicals and structures found within cells, including membranes and DNA.
semiconductor:A substance that can conduct electricity. Semiconductors are important components of certain new electronic technologies, such as computer chips and light-emitting diodes.
ultraviolet light: A part of the light spectrum that is close to violet but invisible to the human eye.
ultraviolet light: A type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths from 10 nanometers to 380 nanometers. The wavelength is shorter than visible light but longer than X-rays.